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Its story starts with the New Stone Age, as proved by excavations. Minoan civilization: 2800-1150 BC, with remains scattered all over the county. During the classical period the ancient town of Kydonia (where Chania stands today) was the principal town until the 7th century AD. From 826 to 961 AD, Chania was occupied by the Arabs. In 961 AD, it was overtaken by the Venetian Emperor Nikiforos Fokas. From 1204 to 1645, the Venetians ruled Chania. From 1248 till 1252, the Venetians built a section of the old town in the port of Chania. From 1645 to 1669, Crete was occupied by the Turks. In 1821 Crete participated in the Greek revolution against the Turks without, however been freed. From 1866 to 1869, there were bloody uprisings and Europe became more responsive. In 1878, Crete became semi-autonomous and in 1897 was placed under the protection of the European Forces. In 1905, the revolution of Therisso took place, leaded by Eleftherios Venizelos.

In 1908, the first High Commissioner to the Island, Prince George, was appointed. His headquarters for the “Cretan State” were based in Chania. Finally in 1913 the Greek flag was raised on the Fortress of Firka. Lastly was the big “Battle of Crete” (20-29 May 1941), one of the most famous and memorable of the 2nd world war. There are plenty of monuments and archaeological sites throughout Hania prefecture, including the following: The Neoria (in the harbour of the Old Τοwη). Venetian buildings (14th-16th century AD) which were used for the protection, repair or building of Venetian "galleys". There are 9 out of the original 25 still in existence. The Loggia in the area of the "Xenia Hotel" and the church of St. Francis in Chalidon street, are two of the most important Venetian monuments. Also worth seeing are the churches of St. Rokos (1630) and St. Sotiros

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The breakwater and the Lighthouse are both Venetian with Arabian foundations, whilst the Mosque with its' domeshape is Arabian. These monuments are found in the harbour. The Firka Fortress opposite the lighthouse is where the Cretan rebels were imprisoned by the Turks. The minaret at the church of St. Nicholas in Splantzia, the Turkish baths near the cathedral, the Court House - which also is the County Ηall and the Italian army barracks next to the Public Gardens, are all originated from the rich islands' history. The Public Market, the Public Gardens the house of the French school "Saint Joseph the refurbished Villa Koundourou and also the houses of Venizelos and Prince George in Halepa. The Venizelos Graves 5 km out of town, οn the way to the airport. Here rests Eleftherios Venizelos, the greatest politician of Greek modern history.  The German Eagle and the War Cemeteries in Souda and Maleme, are reminders of the recent history of the county, mainly from the "Battle of Crete". 

Aptera 5 km from Chania, οn the way to Rethimno, is one of the most important ancient towns of Western Crete, overlooking the plain and the bay of Souda. The ruins of αsmall ancient temple and the walls of the town still exist; together with the remains of an ancient Greek theatre, Roman reservoirs, a Venetian monastery and a Turkish castle. 49 km NW of Chania is located Polyrinia where can be seen ruins from the walls, the acropolis of the ancient town and the sanctuary of Artemis. There are also remains of a Roman aqueduct. The Venetian church of 99 Martyrs is built οn the foundations of a Greek temple, with building materials from roman times. In Falassarna (55 km west of Chania) are found remains of cyclopean walls, house foundations and sculptures carved into the rocks. Important ancient sites still exist in the following places: Elyros (near Rodovani) and Irtakina, Lissos and Syia (at Sougia), Kandanos and Kadros (Minoan graves carved into the rocks), Tarra (Aghia Roumeli), Araden and Anopolis (in Sfakia), Hippokoroneon (Apokoronas), Karidi etc.

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